Analog and Digital Communication
Communication is the most important virtue of mankind which consequently makes the study of this branch imperative. Communication is studied in two divisions, namely Analog communication and Digital Communication. In this module, Analog communication is taken under consideration which explains how communication carries out in continuous form. It includes the concepts of modulation and its types, Radio Transmitters and how noise affects the information signal. Important concepts have been elucidated by using flash files. The subject helps developing the foundation for higher semester communication related subjects.
Unit 1: Communication
History of communication- communication in ancient times, usage of smoke and drum followed by telegraph, introduction of sound (wired electrical signals), Telephony, Different types of Signals
Unit 2: Modulation Techniques
Introduction to modulation, Need of Modulation, Frequency and Time division Multiplexing, Example of letter transmission for understanding the concept of modulation, Modulation Hierarchy, Amplitude Modulation - Time Domain and Frequency Domain mathematical expressions, DSBSC modulation and demodulation – Time and Frequency Domain, Graphical Representations, Modulation Index, Advantages and Limitations-DSBSC modulation. .
Unit 3: Angle Modulation
Angle Modulation- Introduction, Types, Advantages & Disadvantages, Applications, Frequency Modulation, FM- Example ( graph ), FM equation, Vector explanation ( angular velocity ), Modulation Index, Spectrum, bandwidth requirement. Phase modulation – Example, Comparison of FM & PM, & FM & AM systems, AM, FM, PM, NBFM & WBFM, Multiple Frequencies FM, Methods of FM generation, Direct & Indirect Methods, Advantages & Disadvantages, Pre-emphasis & De-emphasis, FM detectors, Foster seeley discriminator, Slope detector, PLL, Block Diagram, Ratio Detector, Receivers, FM receivers, AFC, FAQ and Quiz.
Unit 4: Radio Transmitters & Receivers
Radio Transmitters, introduction, function of a transmitter, AM transmitters, Low level modulated AM transmitters, High level modulated transmitters, Comparison : High and Low level Modulation, SSB transmitters, Generation methods, filter method, filters used-math, comparison of SSB transmitters, effect of mixing and multiplication, VSB- Introduction, advantages, FM transmitters, advantages, disadvantages, FM generation, Direct and indirect, Radio receivers, superheterodyne, RF amplifier, mixer, AFC, AGC, diversity reception, Intermediate frequency, Quiz, FAQ.
Unit 5: Noise
Noise : Introduction, Sources of noise, External sources, Classification, noise produced by transportation ( man made noise ), extraterrestrial noise, atmospheric noise, Internal noise and its types, Thermal, shot, partition, Flicker, Transit time, White Gaussian noise, Features, Power Spectral Density, Superposition of noises, Equivalent Noise Bandwidth, Noise bandwidth of filter, Noise figure, Noise Temperature, Noise Factor of amplifiers in cascade, Overall Gain, Expression for ‘F’, Equivalent Noise Temperature of Amplifiers in Cascade, Noise performance, Quadrature components of Noise, Phasor diagram, PSD expression, Figure of merit, Noise in AM Receiver , Noisy model, Noise in FM Receivers ,Pre- emphasis, De-emphasis, FAQ, Quiz.
Unit 6: Digital Modulation Techniques
This unit explains various digital modulation techniques, ASK, FSK, PSK, QPSK, DPSK, QAM their generation and detection methods with corresponding block diagram and waveform analysis.
Unit 7: Spread Spectrum Techniques
This unit explains spread spectrum modulation, PN sequence and generator, Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) and Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS), Multiple Access Techniques: FDMA, TDMA and CDMA.
Add to Cart