Digital electronics is essential to understand the design and working of a wide range of applications, from consumer and industrial electronics to communications; from embedded systems, and computers to security and military equipment. As the devices used in these applications decrease in size and employ more complex technology, it is essential for engineers and students to fully understand both the fundamentals and also the implementation and application principles of digital electronics.
Unit 1.1: Number Systems
In this chapter we explained; Number systems; Decimal, binary, octal hexadecimal number system & conversion from one number system to another like decimal to binary, binary to decimal, decimal to octal, octal to decimal, decimal to hexadecimal to decimal & so on & relevant FAQs & quizzes are also given for self estimation.
Unit 1.2: Codes
In this topic various codes; BCD code, Excess 3 code, Gray code, Alphanumeric code, Parity codes and conversions; BCD to binary, binary to BCD, gray to binary, binary to gray
and at the end summary is added for quick review.
Unit 1.3: Binary Arithmetic
In this topic various binary arithmetic operations like binary addition, subtraction, multiplication are explained with suitable example along with complements in various number systems and subtractions using the r’s and (r-1)’s complements are explained and at the end summary is added for quick review.
Unit 2.1: Logic gates
In this topic we explained combinational circuit; Various logic gates; AND gate, OR gate, NOT gate, NOR gate, NAND gate, XOR gate, XNOR gate along with their electrical equivalents, truth tables and logic circuits. Realizations of various gates using the universal gates NAND, NOR and at the end summary is added for quick review.
Unit 2.2: Adders & Subtractors
In this topic we explained; Adders; Half adder, full adder, BCD adders and their logic symbols, logic circuits and truth table, multiple bit adder(4 bit ripple carry adder), propagation delay, look ahead carry generator (and adder). Subtractor; Half subtractor, Full subtractor and at the end summary is added for quick review.
Unit 3.1: Flip Flops
This topic covers all types of flip flops like; RS, D, JK and T flip flops with their logic circuits, truth tables and operations under different input conditions and various terms like their propagation delay, setup time and hold time, asynchronous inputs with audio enable animations and summary is added for quick review.
Unit 3.2: Multivibrators and Comparators
This topic covers: Multivibrators; Monostable multivibrator and Astable multivibrator, their operations using 555 timer IC and logic gates NAND and NOR. Comparators; Inverting and non inverting comparators, zero crossing detector, Schmitt Trigger and its applications and summary is added for quick review.
Unit 1.4: Boolean Algebra
In this topic we explained; Boolean algebra, switching algebra, minterm, maxterm , concept of prime implicants, various properties and identities of Boolean algebra, De morgan’s theorem, minimization of switching functions using; Map method(Karnaugh map), Quine McCluskey’s method(Tabulation method) and at the end summary is added for quick review.
Unit 4.1: Logic Families
Present topic covers various types of logic families; Diode logic (DL), Resistor transistor logic (RTL), Diode transistor logic (DTL), Transistor transistor logic (TTL) and various MOS families; NMOS, PMOS and CMOS family with relevant circuit diagrams, truth tables under different input conditions for each gate in each family and at the end summary is added for quick review.
Unit 5.1: Shift Registers
Present topic covers various types of shift registers; Serial in serial out (SISO), serial in parallel out (SIPO), Parallel in serial out (PISO) and parallel in parallel out (PIPO) starting with parallel and serial transfer of data with their logic circuits, truth tables and timing diagrams and at the end summary is added for quick review.
Unit 5.2: Counters
This topic covers various types of synchronous and asynchronous up/down counters; Ripple counter, decade counters with their logic circuits, timing diagrams, propagation delays and applications. At the end summary is added for quick review.
Unit 6.1: Semiconductor Memories
Present topic covers various primary memories; RAM which includes SRAM, DRAM and ROM which includes MROM, PROM, EPROM and EEPROM along with their read and writes cycles timing diagrams, memory cells etc. At the end there is a summary for quick review of the topic.
Unit 6.2: Multiplexers, Demultiplexers, Encoders and Decoders
This topic covers different types of multiplexers, demultiplexers, encoders and decoders with user interactive logic circuits and truth tables with all animation audio enable and at the end there is a summary for quick review of the topic.
Unit 7.1: ADC and DAC
This topic covers analog and digital data, various types of DAC like binary weighted type DAC, R2R ladder type DAC and various types of ADC which includes digital ramp ADC, successive approximation type ADC, flash type ADC, tracking type ADC, sample and hold circuit at the end there is a summary for quick review.
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