This course deals with concepts and applications of Engineering Physics. This course is divided into 5 units of equal weightage. Illustrative examples follow each new concept. We include quizes which help learner to understand the depth of the basic concepts and devise new applications.
Unit 1.1: Development of Quantum Physics
Origin of Quantum Hypothesis, Black Body, Black Body Radiation, Black Body Energy Distribution, Rayleigh - Jean’s Law, Wien’s Law, Stefan’s Law, Conclusion
Unit 1.2: Planck‘s Approach and Black Body Radiation
Introduction, Planck’s Approach, Comparison between Classical & Quantum Oscillator, Radical Assumption of Planck’s Approach, Importance of Planck’s Approach
Unit 1.3: De Broglie's Hypothesis and Matter
Introduction, De Broglie’s Approach, Experimental Confirmation, Bragg’s Diffraction, Davisson and Germer Experiment, Other Experimental confirmation of matter waves
Unit 1.4: Phase Velocity and Group Velocity
Wave Packet, Phase Velocity, Group Velocity, Relation between Phase Velocity and Group Velocity, Particle as Wave Packet, Phase and Group Velocity in Classical Mechanics, Phase and Group Velocity in Relativistic Mechanics, Conclusion
Unit 1.5: X ray Scattering and Compton's Effect
Compton Effect, Compton’s Scattering, Relativistic explanation of Compton Effect, Compton’s Wavelength, Conclusion
Unit 1.6: Heisenberg Principle and its Application
Introduction, Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle, Application of Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle
Unit 1.7: Schrodinger Wave Equation
Introduction, Operators and State Functions, Schrodinger Equation, Eigen Value and Eigen Functions, Interpretation of Wave Function, Normalization Condition
Unit 1.8: Application of Schrodinger‘s Wave Equation
Introduction, Free particle in one dimension, Particle in one dimensional box, Particle in three dimensional box.
Unit 1.9: Step Potential and its Application
Introduction, Potential step, Application, Rectangular potential barrier, Application of Boundary condition, Wave Function, Application of tunneling effect
Unit 1.10: Rectangular Lattice and Kronig Penny Model
Introduction, Rectangular Lattice, Bloch’s Theorem, Kronig Penny Model
Unit 1.11: Three Quantum Statistics
Introduction, Brillouin’s Comment, Phase Space, Microstates and Macrostate, Maxwell Boltzmann Statistics, Bose – Einstein Statistics, Fermi – Dirac Statistics
Unit 1.12: Bose - Einstein Statistics Photon Gas
Introduction, Density of States, Photon Gas, Quasi Particles
Unit 1.13: Fermi Dirac Statistics - Fermi Gas
Introduction, Free electron gas, Fermi gas, Effect of temperature
Unit 2.1: Introduction to Interference of Light
Introduction, Meaning of Interference phenomena, Understanding of light propagation, Young’s principle of superposition, Wave front, Huygens's theory, Coherence
Unit 2.2: Double Slit and Biprism Experiment
Introduction, Acoustic simulation of interference, Young’s double slit experiment, First Slit S, Double slit, Intensity Distribution, Conditions for Sustained interference, Wave in the same direction, Fresnel’s Biprism experiments, Determination of wavelength
Unit 2.3: Thin Film Interference
Introduction, Stoke’s Treatment of Reflection and Transmission, Thin Film Interference Phenomena
Unit 2.4: Newton‘s Ring Experiment & Wedge Film
Introduction, Wedge shape film, Newton‘s rings experiment, Theory of circular fringes, Transmission mode, Applications, Determination of wavelength
Unit 2.5: Michelson Interferometer
Michelson interferometer, Case of inclined mirror plates, White light fringes, Application of Michelson interferometer
Unit 2.6: Introduction to Diffraction of Light
Diffraction, Classification of diffraction, Single slit diffraction
Unit 2.7: Plane Transmission Grating
Introduction, Theory of n – slits, working of transmission grating, Comparison of prismatic and grating spectra.
Unit 2.8: Resolving Power
Objective, Lord Rayleigh’s approach, Resolution Limit, Resolving power of Grating, Resolving power of prism
Unit 2.9 : Introduction to Polarization
Introduction, Concept of Polarization, Electromagnetic wave nature of light, Method of production of plane polarized light, Plane polarization by reflection, Brewster’s Law, Polarizer and Analyzer, Law of Malus
Unit 2.10: Double Refraction
Discovery of double refraction, Huygens’s Theory of Double Refraction, Nicol Prism, Dichroism and Tourmaline Crystal
Unit 2.11: Application and Analysis of Polarized light
General observations on polarization of light, Retardation plates, Superposition of two plane polarized waves, Analysis of light
Unit 3.1:Introduction and Laser Classification
Introduction, Absorption of Radiation, Pumping, Active Medium, Chart for different lasers and different pumping methods.
Unit 3.2: Laser Fundamentals
Introduction, Principle of Laser, Main Components of Laser, Design and Actions of Optical, Resonator, Laser Rate Equations, Laser Output.
Unit 3.3: Main Properties of Laser
Introduction, Intensity, Brightness, Short-Pulse-Duration, Directionality and Focusability, Coherence, Transverse and Longitudinal Modes, Monochromaticity.
Unit 3.4: Types of Laser
Introduction, Ruby Laser, Nd - YAG and Nd – Glass LASER, Helium – Neon Laser, Carbon – dioxide LASER
Unit 3.5: Semiconductor Laser
Introduction, Semiconductor Laser & its working, Optical Pumping, Photon-Semiconductor interaction, Threshold current for p-n junction diode laser
Unit 3.6: Applications of Laser
Introduction, Industrial Applications, Medical Applications, Isotope Separation, Pico-second , Pulses, Laser Tracking and range finding, Remote Sensing, I.T. and Communication
Unit 3.7: Non Linear Optics
Birth of New Science, Waves and Medium – Linearity, Laser Intensity and non-linear wave equation, Non Linear optical phenomena
Unit 3.8: Holography
New Science of Holography, In-line Holography, Holography, Theory of Holograms, Off – line Holography, Properties of holograms, Holographic Recording Media, Mass Replication of Holograms, Other Applications
Unit 3.9: Optical Fiber Development
History, Charles Kao’s contribution, Optical Fibers, Fiber loss equation, Losses in decibels and fractions, Attenuation and wavelength, Optical fiber cable
Unit 3.10: Fiber Optics
Introduction, Light propagation in fibers, Light propagation in the core, Mathematical model of energy capture, Incident energy and trapped energy, Energy retained in core, Light gathering power and numerical aperture, Acceptance cone of light – angle, Requirement for long distance communication, Maximum time and minimum time of travel, Time of travel along the axis, c and dispersion , Methods to improve pulse dispersion effect, Ray propagation in Graded index fiber, Parabolic index fiber, Invariant of ray path, Bending of fibers
Unit 4.1: Semiconductors & Classification
Introduction, Definition of Semiconductor, Development of semiconductor technology initial phase, Classification of Semiconductor, Elemental and Compound semiconductors, Intrinsic and Extrinsic Semiconductor, Semiconducting property in organic material, Amorphous Semiconductor, Liquid Semiconductor, Quantum dots Wires and wells, Semiconductor Heterosturctures, Strained Super lattices
Unit 4.2: Band Formation in Solids
Band Theory of Solid, Part A - Atom atom interactions, Part B, Free Electron Gas, Fermi Dirac Distribution
Unit 4.3: Kronig Penney Model & Band Gap Engineering
Atom Atom Interaction, Exchange Interaction, Crystal Space lattice, Rectangular Lattice, Bloch’s Theorem (part I), Kronig Penny Model (part II), Band Gap Engineering.
Unit 4.4: Fermi-Dirac Statistics for Semiconductor
Introduction, Fermi-Dirac Statistics for a Semiconductor, Statistics for Excess Electrons and Holes, Charge Neutrality condition, Statistics for Extrinsic Semiconductor, Energy Levels Due to Impurities, Distribution of Quantum States, Effect of High Density of Impurities, Electrons and Hole Concentration, Law Of Mass Action
Unit 4.5: Electrons & Holes in Semiconductor
Review of previous lessons, Effective number of Quantum States and Occupancy, Extrinsic semiconductor and charge-neutrality condition, Effective mass of electrons and holes, Effective mass – Pragmatic concept, Table of effective mass, Fermi level, Direct and Indirect band gap, Band gap and optical transition.
Unit 4.6: Transport Phenomena in Semiconductor
Formation Bloch – Waves in semiconductors – electron And Hole Motion In Semiconductors, Effectiveness Of Particle Concept, Drift Velocity, Mobility, Transport Property, Conductivity Equation, Hall Effect, Recombination Rate.
Unit 4.7: Development of PN Junction & Space Charge
Formation of p-n junction, Ohmic contact, Properties of p-n junction, Equilibrium p-n junction, Built in voltage, Equilibrium Fermi-level, Space charge – Depletion layer – width, Forward bias, Reverse bias, Break down.
Unit 4.8: Properties of PN Junction & Shockley Equation
Properties Of p-n Junction, Depletion Layer Capacitance, Linearity Graded Junction, Built-In-Voltage And Capacitance, Diffusion Capacitance, Current-Voltage Relation, Shockley Equation, Generation-Recombination Process, Junction Break Down
Unit 4.9: Properties of Bulk Effect Devices
Technology breads new science, Classification of devices, Bulk-effect Devices, Hall-effect-Devices, Photoconductor, Recombination process, Role of Trap Centre's, Absorption spectrum and frequency response, Photoconductor Devices
Unit 4.10: PN Junction Diodes and Devices
Introduction, Technical aspects of p-n junction diodes, p-n junction Diode as rectifier, Germanium and Silicon Rectifier Diodes, Voltage Regulator, Varistor, Varactor, Fast-Recovery Diode, Charge – Storage Diode
Unit 4.11: Semiconductor Laser
Introduction, Semiconductor Laser & it’s working, Optical Pumping, Photon-Semiconductor interaction, Threshold current for p-n junction diode laser
Unit 4.12: Nano Science & Nanotechnology
Nanoscience and nanotechnology, Advanced techniques of microscopy and spectroscopy , Main characteristics of nanoscience, Methods of developing nanomaterials, Sol-gel method, Emergence of new disciplines of science and engineering, Carbon – nano objects, Inorganic nano-objects, Reservation and ethical issues, Gray – goos, Feynmann’s vision
Unit 5.1: Discovery of Radio Activity and it’s Laws
Introduction, Becquerel‘s Rays, Laws of Radio-active decay, Old and Modern methods of Designation, Nuclear Disintegration and Conservation Laws, Radioactive series.
Unit 5.2: Nuclear Detectors
Introduction, The Nuclear Emulsion, Ionization Chambers and Counters, The Cloud Chamber, Bubble chamber, The scintillation counter, Cerenkov Counter, Spark Chamber, The Coincidence Technique.
Unit 5.3: The Atomic Nucleus and it’s Properties
Introduction, Characterization and classification of Nuclei, Nuclear Isomerism, Nuclear size, Nuclear mass, Nuclear density, Nuclear spin and nuclear magnetic moment.
Unit 5.4: Stability of Nucleus
Introduction, Binding Energy Curve, Neutron-proton number ratio, Odd-evenness of neutron – proton numbers, Magic Number, Doubly Magic Nuclei.
Unit 5.5: Nuclear Models
Mystery of the Nucleus, Empirical Neutron-Proton Model, Modified Regression Model, Alpha Particle Model, Liquid Drop Model, Semi-empirical mass formula SE MF, Modification of SEMF – Saturation effect, Shell Model of the Nucleus, Woods Saxon Potential, Success of Shell Model, Limitations.
Unit 5.6: Other Nuclear Models
Introduction, Closed-Packed Spheron Model of Linus Pauling, 2D lsing Model, Single Nucleon Model of the Nucleus, Collective Model of the Nucleus, Fermi-Gas Model of the Nucleus, Layer model of the nucleus, Nilsson’s Model, Consistency.
Unit 5.7: Nuclear Reactions
Introduction, Nuclear Reactions – Basics and classification, Designation of nuclear-reaction, Conservation Laws Governing Nuclear Reactions, Q values of nuclear reactions, Nuclear Reaction cross-section, Complex Nature of Nuclear Reactions.
Unit 5.8: Particle Accelerators: Marvels of Engineering
Introduction, Initial Development, Marvels of Engineering: Large Hadron Collider, Major Discoveries due to Accelerators, List of Major Discoveries using Particle Accelerators, Colliders, Particle Accelerators in India.
Unit 5.9: Some Particle Accelerators
Introduction, Van de Graaf Generator – Accelerator, Linear Particle Accelerator – LINAC, Cyclotron, Synchro-cyclotron, Synchrotron, Proton-synchrotron (PS), Betatron.
Unit 5.10: Nuclear Fission and Chain Reaction
Introduction, Nuclear Fission, Theoretical interpretation, Fission Products, Energy Release, Important characteristics of fission reaction, Uncontrolled chain reaction - Fission Bomb.
Unit 5.11: Controlled Chain Reaction and Nuclear Reactors
Introduction, Neutron Reaction cross-sections, Nuclear Reactor: Construction and Working, Reactor classification.
Unit 5.12: Nuclear Fusion, Steller Source of Energy, Fusion Reactor
Introduction, Important characteristics of fusion-reaction, Hydrogen-Helium fusion reaction, Controlled Fusion Reaction, Lawson Criteria, Product ne tc, Plasma confinement, Criteria for terrestrial reaction selection, List of fusion experiments, List of the various reactions.
Unit 5.13: Elementary Particle Physics
Introduction, Three families of particle, Four Forces, Statistical classification – Fermions, Hypothetical Particles, Composite Particle Classification, Other classification due to theories, Speed classification, Condensed matter classification, List of mesons and baryons.
Unit 5.14: Mass Spectroscopy and its Application
Introduction, Mass spectrometer – Thomson’s contribution, Aston’s Mass Spectrograph, Mass determination, Mass Standard, Details of Aston’s mass spectrograph, Bainbridge mass spectrograph, Other mass spectrograph.
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