Chemistry (Class 12 / Grade 12)
The course deals with concepts of chemistry of class XII. It develops the better understanding of basic concepts through animation. Quiz and FAQ are added to each unit which provide learner innovative and interesting practice environment.
Unit 1: Solid State
Classification of solids based on different binding forces: molecular, ionic, covalent and metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea), unit cell in two dimensional and three dimensional lattices, calculation of density of unit cell, packing on solids, voids, number of atoms per unit cell in a cubic unit cell, point defects, electrical and magnetic properties.
Unit 2: Solutions
Types of slolutions, expression of concentration of solutions of solids in liquids, solubility of gases in liquids, solid solutions, colligative properties - relative lovering of vapour pressure, elevation of B.P., depression of freezing point, osmotic pressure, determination of molecular masses using colligative properties, abnormal molecular mass.
Unit 3: Electrochemistry
Redox Reaction, Cell, Electrode potential, Electro motive force (EMF), Standard Hydrogen Electrode (SHE), Measurement of standard electrode potential, Electrochemical series, Nernst Equation , Concentration cell , Electrochemical cell and gibb’s energy, Nernst equation and equilibrium constant, Conductance of electrolytic solution Molar conductivity of electrolytic solution, Experimental measurement of electrical conductivity, variation of conductivity and molar conductivity, Kohlrausch's law, Quantitative aspect of electrolysis, Difference between Galvanic cell and Electrolytic Cell, Qualitative aspects of product formation , Batteries, Fuel Cells, Corrosion, Prevention of corrosion
Unit 4: General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
Introduction, Modes of occurrence of metal, Extraction of non-metallic element, Extraction of metals- metallurgy, Occurrence and principles of extraction of some metal, Iron , Copper, Zinc, Aluminum, Silver
Unit 5: Chemical Kinetics
Rate of a reaction (average and instantaneous ), factors affecting rates of reaction; concentration, temperature, catalysts; order and molecularity of a reaction; rate law and specific rate constant, integrated rate equations and half life (only for zero and first order reactions); concept of collision theory (elementary idea, no mathematical treatment ).
Unit 6: Surface Chemistry
Adsorption – Physisorption and Chemisorptions; factors affecting adsorption of gases onsolids; catalysis: homogeneous and heterogeneous, activityand selectivity; enzyme catalysis; colloidal state : distinction between true solutions, colloids and suspensions; lyophilic, lyophobic, multimolecular and macromolecular colloids; properties of colloids; Tyndall effect, Brownian movement, electrophoresis, coagulation; emulsion – types of empulsions.
Unit 7: Coordination Compounds
Coordination compounds - Introduction, ligands, coordination number, colour, magnetic properties and shapes, IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds. Bonding; isomerism, importance of coordination compounds (in qualitative analysis, extraction of metals and biological systems).
Unit 8.1: Nitrogen Family
Group 15 elements - General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, and oxidation state, trends in physical and chemical properties, nitrogen – preparation, properties and uses; compounds of nitrogen: preparation and properties of ammonia and nitric acid, oxides of nitrogen (structure only); phosphorous-allotropic forms; compounds of phosphorus: preparation and properties of Phosphine, halides (PCl3, PCl5) and oxoacids (elementary idea only).
Unit 8.2: Oxygen Family
Group 16 elements-General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties; dioxygen: preparation, properties and uses; simple oxides; Ozone, sulphur – allotropic forms; compounds of sulphur :preparation, properties and uses of sulphur dioxide; sulphuric acid : industrial process of manufacture, properties and uses, oxoacids of sulphur (structure only).
Unit 8.3: Halogen Family and Noble Gases
Group 17 elements - General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties; compounds of Halogens: preparation, properties and uses of chlorine and hydrochloric acid, interhalogen compounds, oxoacids of halogens (structure only). Group 18 elements - General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties uses.
Unit 9: d and f Block Elements
General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence and characteristic of transition metals, general trends in properties of the first row transition metals – metallic character, ionization enthalpy, oxidation states ionic radii, colour catalytic property, magnetic properties interstitial compounds, alloy formation preparation and properties of K2Cr2O7 and KMnO4.Lanthanoids - electronic configuration, oxidation states, chemical reactivity and lanthanoid contraction. Actinoids - Electronic configuration, oxidation states.
Unit 10: Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
Haloalkanes-Nomenclature,nature of C–Xbond physical and chemical properties, mechanism of substitution reactions. aloarenes - Nature of C – X bond, substitution reactions (directive influence of halogen for monosubstituted compounds only)Uses and environmental effect of - dichloromethane, trichloromethance, tetrachloromethane, iodoform, freons, DDT.
Unit 11: Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
Alcohols - Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties (of primary alcohols only); identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols; mechanism of dehydration, uses some important compounds – methanol and ethanol.Phenols - Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties,acidic nature of phenol, electrophillic substitution reactions, uses of phenols.Ethers - Nomenclature, a method of preparation, physical and chemical properties uses.
Unit 12: Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
Aldehydes and Ketones - Nomenclature, nature of carbony1 group, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, and mechanism of nucleophilic addition, reactivity of alpha hydrogen in aldehydes; uses.Carboxylic Acids - Nomenclature, acidic nature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties; uses.
Unit 13: Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen
Amines - Nomenclature, Classification, structure, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses, identification of primary, secondary and tertiary amines.Cyanides and Isocyanides - will be mentioned at relevant places in context. Diazonium salts - Preparation, chemical reactions and importance in synthetic organic chemistry.
Unit 15: Polymers
Classification – natural and synthetic, methods of polymerization, (addition and condensation), copolymerization, some important polymers: natural and synthetic like polythene, nylon, polyesters, Bakelite, rubber.
Unit 14: Biomolecules
Carbohydrates - Classification (aldoses and ketoses), monosaccharides (glucose and fructose), oligosaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose), polysaccharides (starch, cellulose, glycogen); importance.Proteins - Elementary ideal of α – amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides proteins, primary structure, secondary structure, tertiary structure and quaternary structure (qualitative idea only), denaturation of proteins; enzymes. Nucleic Acids - DNA and RNA.
Unit 16: Chemistry in Everyday life
Chemicals in medicines: - analgesics, tranquilizers, antiseptics, disinfectants, antimicrobials, antifertility drugs, antibiotic, antacids, antihistamines. Chemicals in food: - preservatives, artificial sweetening agents. Cleansing agents – soaps and detergents, cleansing action.
Add to Cart