Chemistry (Class 11 / Grade 11)
Chemistry is the science of matter - what matter is like, what makes up matter, what changes occur in matter, what causes those changes. Chemistry deals with finding what different substances are made of, what kind of transformations take place, and different chemically related facts about a certain organism or substance. It is a key to all the other sciences and a part of every aspect of our world.
SKU Chemistry 11 SKU subject has information, quizzes and activities to provide an introduction to chemistry. This course is developed strictly according to N.C.E.R.T. pattern and syllabus. It develops the better understanding of basic concepts through lectures with simple and easy language. No matter what your student’s goals are, this site will help to learn them the basics of chemistry. This site is supported by animations, e-lectures, high quality images and graphics which will help the viewer to visualize the particle nature of matter.
Unit 1: Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry
General Introduction: Importance and scope of Chemistry. Historical
approach to particulate nature of matter, laws of chemical combination. Dalton’s atomic
theory: Concept of elements, atoms and molecules.
Atomic and molecular masses. Mole concept and molar mass: percentage composition,
empirical and molecular formula; chemical reactions, stoichiometry and calculations based
Unit 2: Structure of Atom
Discovery of electron, proton and neutron; atomic number, isotopes and isobars. Thomson’s medal and its limitations, Rutherford’s model and its limitations. Bohr’s model and its limitations, concept of shells and subshells, dual nature of matter and light de Broglie’s relationship, Heisenberg uncertainty principle, concept of orbitals, quantum numbers, shapes of s, p and d orbital, rules for filling electrons in orbitals – Aufbau principle, Pauli exclusion principle and Hund’s rule, electronic configuration of atoms, stability of half filled and completely filled orbitals.
Unit 3: Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties
Significance of classification, brief history of the development of periodic table, modern periodic law and the present form of periodic table, periodic trends in properties of elements- atomic radii, ionic radii. Ionization enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy, electro negativity, valence.
Unit 4: Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure
Valence electron, ionic bond, covalent bond: bond parameters. Lewis structure, polar character of covalent bond covalent character of ionic bond, valence bond theory, resonance geometry of covalent molecules, VSEPR theory, concept of hybridization, involving s, p and d orbitals and shapes of some simple molecules, molecular orbitals ; theory of homonuclear diatomic molecules (qualitative idea only), hydrogen bond.
Unit 5: States of Matter: Gases and Liquids
Three states of matter. Intermolecular, Interactions, types of bonding, meting and boiling points. Role of gas laws in elucidating the concept of the molecule, Boyle’s law, Charles’s law, Gay Lussac’s law, Avogadro’s law. Ideal Behavior, empirical derivation of gas equation, Avogadro number. Ideal gas equation. Derivation from ideal behavior, liquefaction of gases, critical temperature.
Unit 7.1: Chemical Equilibrium
Reversible and Irreversible Reactions,Equilibria involving Physical Changes
Equilibrium in Chemical Processes,Dynamic Nature of Chemical Equilibrium
Law of Mass Action,Equilibrium Constant,Applications of Equilibrium Constant,Relationship between Equilibrium Constant K and Change in Gibb’s Free Energy DG,Factors Affecting Equilibria – Le– Chatelier’s Principle
Unit 7.2: Ionic Equilibrium
Ionization of Weak Electrolytes,Arrhenius Concept of Acid and Bases
Bronsted - Lowry Concept of Acids and Bases,Lewis Acids and Bases
Ionization of Acid and Bases,The ionization Constant of Water and its Ionic Product,Expressing Hydronium Ion Concentration - pH Scale
Hydrolysis of Salts,Solubility Product Constant,Common Ion Effect on Solubility of Ionic Salts,Applications of Solubility Product,Buffer Solutions
Unit 8: Redox Reactions
Concept of oxidation and reduction, redox reactions, oxidation no. balancing redox reactions, applications of redox reactions.
Unit 9: Hydrogen
Position of hydrogen in periodic table, occurrence isotopes, preparation, properties and uses of hydrogen; hydrides – ionic, covalent and interstitial; physical and chemical properties of water, heavy water; hydrogen peroxide-preparation, properties and structure ; hydrogen as a fuel.
Unit 10: s-block Elements
General Introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, anaomalous properties of the first element of each group, diagonal relationship, trends in the variation of properties (such as ionization enthalpy, atomic and ionic radii), trends in chemical reactivity with oxygen water, hydrogen and halogens ; uses.
Preparation and Properties of some Important compounds :
Sodium carbonate, sodium chloride, sodium hydroxide and sodium hydrogen carbonate, biological importance of sodium and potassium.
CaO, CaCO3 and industrial use of lime and limestone, biological importance of Mg and Ca.
Unit 11.1: Some p-block Elements
Group 13 elements : General Introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, variation of properties, oxidation state, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous properties of first element of group; Boron physical and chemical properties, some important compound : borax, boric acids, boron hydrides. Aluminium : uses, reactions with acids and alkalies.
Unit 11.2: Some p-block Elements
Group 14 elements : General Introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, variation of properties, oxidation state, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous behaviour of first element Carbon-catenation, allotropic forms physical and chemical properties, uses of some important compounds : Oxides.
Unit 12: Organic Chemistry Some Basic Principle and Techniques
General introduction, methods of qualitative and quantitative analysis, classification and IUPAC nomenclature of organic compounds.
Electronic displacement in a covalent bond : inductive effect, electromeric effect, resonance and hyperconjugation.
Hemolytic and heterolytic fission of a covalent bond: free radicals, carbocations, carbanions, electrophiles and nucleophiles, types of organic reactions.
Unit 13: Hydrocarbons
Alkanes: Nomenclature, isomerism conformations (ethane only), physical properties, chemical reactions, including free radical mechanism of halogenations, combustion and pyrolysis.
Alkenes : Nomenclature, structure of double bond (ethane), geometrical isomerism, physical properties methods of preparation ; chemical reactions – addition of hydrogen, halogen, water, hydrogen halides (Markovnikov’s addition and peroxide effect), ozonolysis, oxidation, mechanism of electrophilic addition.
Alkynes: Nomenclature, structure of triple bond (ethyne), physical properties, Method of preparation, chemical reactions; acidic character of alkynes, addition reaction of –hydrogen, halogens, hydrogen halides and water.
Aromatic hydrocarbons: Introduction, IUPAC nomenclature ; Benzene – resonance aromaticity ; chemical properties; mechanism of electrophilic substitution – nitration, sulphonation, halogenations, Friedel Craft’s alkylation and acylation; directive influence of functional group in mono-substituted benzene; carcinogenicity and toxicity.
Unit 14: Environmental Chemistry
Environmental pollution – air, water and soil pollution, chemical reaction in atmosphere, smog,acid rain, ozone and its reactions, effect of depletion of ozone layer, greenhouse effect and global warming – pollution due to industrial wastes.
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